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An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test used for measuring electrical abnormalities in the brain. The procedure tracks and records the wave abnormalities and and electrical discharges occurring in the brain.
In this procedure, electrodes will be placed on the scalp of a person’s head; these electrodes are in the form of small metal discs coupled with thin wires. These electrodes will effectively send these continuously wavering electrical signals as a measure of the electrical activity occurring in the brain.
The recording of the electrical signals is conducted using a computer that is attached in the electrical circuit pattern. It is only through EEG that a doctor can arrive at a conclusion about the electrical pattern and activities occurring in the brain; this helps a doctor to know if the patient has really developed the tendency of abnormal seizure patterns.
EEGs also help us to monitor and analyze abnormal seizure patterns. EEGs help the doctor to know whether the patient is suffering from sleep disturbances and reports behavioral changes associated with sleep disturbances.
In some trauma cases, EEG is conducted to get an estimate of the extent of injury that has happened in the brain, increasing the susceptibility of the patient to developing seizure disorders.
What does a patient need to do for an EEG? The patient should ensure that the scalp is completely dry before going for the EEG diagnosis. The patient should ensure that the hair is free of oil; the patient is required to not use any spray and conditioner preventing the electrode from attaching to the scalp. Also, if the patient has suffered a fit for the first time, he or she has to go for the EEG without the effect of any medication. We also recommend stopping caffeine consumption at least 8 hours prior to the test.
An EEG may be conducted at a place near a doctor’s clinic or in a hospital. The patient will be asked to lie on a bed or recline on a chair. An adhesive paste is employed for attaching the electrodes to different locations on the scalp.
Each of the electrodes will be connected to the amplifier and ultimately to the EEG recording machine. These electrical signals are quantitatively converted into wavy lines that are displayed on the computer screen attached in the circuit. On the computer screen, we see wavy lines: these display the electrical activity occurring in the brain in the form of wavy lines.
While the EEG is being conducted, the patient will be asked to lie still. Photosensitive EEG is also conducted for determining the exact cause of seizure causing epilepsy. While the EEG is being conducted, the patient will be exposed to sudden bright flickering light and will be asked to breathe faster or in a peculiar manner.
The main objective of this is to examine the electrical sensitivity of the patient when subjected to light stimulation. The neurologist will examine the EEG and detect the electrical abnormalities in the patient’s brain. It is one of the most important diagnostic tests for epileptic patients.